Typical murine models of allergic inflammation are induced by the combination of ovalbumin and aluminum hydroxide. However, accumulating evidence indicates that, in models of asthma and atopic dermatitis, allergic inflammation can be generated in the absence of aluminum hydroxide. Moreover, co-administration of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B with ovalbumin can enhance inflammation. The objective of this study was to establish a rapid and mast cell-dependent murine model of allergic inflammation by inducing allergic peritonitis using ovalbumin and S. aureus enterotoxin B. Allergic peritonitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by subcutaneous sensitization and intraperitoneal challenge with ovalbumin and S. aureus enterotoxin B. Disease characteristics were assessed by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), trypan blue exclusion and colorimetric assays. The time–course of the allergic peritonitis revealed a peak of peritoneal inflammation 48 h after challenge, as assessed by total cells and eosinophil counts. The decrease of cell numbers started 96 h post-challenge, with complete clearance within 168 h. Moreover, significantly higher levels of tryptase and increased vascular permeability were found 30 min following challenge. Allergic inflammation induction by ovalbumin and S. aureus enterotoxin B was impaired in mast cell-deficient mice and partially restored by mice reconstitution with bone marrow-derived mast cells, indicating the mast cell role in this model. We present a novel model of allergic peritonitis that is mast cell-dependent, simple and robust. Moreover, the use of S. aureus enterotoxin B better resembles human allergic inflammation, which is known to be characterized by the colonization of S. aureus.
Neutrophils play a crucial role in immune defense against and clearance of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC)-mediated urinary tract infection, the most common bacterial infection in healthy humans. CD300a is an inhibitory receptor that binds phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, presented on the membranes of apoptotic cells. CD300a binding to phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, also known as the “eat me” signal, mediates immune tolerance to dying cells. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that CD300a plays an important role in the neutrophil-mediated immune response to UPEC-induced urinary tract infection. We show that CD300a-deficient neutrophils have impaired phagocytic abilities and despite their increased accumulation at the site of infection, they are unable to reduce bacterial burden in the bladder, which results in significant exacerbation of infection and worse host outcome. Finally, we demonstrate that UPEC's pore forming toxin $\alpha$-hemolysin induces upregulation of the CD300a ligand on infected bladder epithelial cells, signaling to neutrophils to be cleared.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic stimulated both the scientific community and healthcare companies to undertake an unprecedented effort with the aim of understanding the molecular mechanisms of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and developing effective therapeutic solutions. The peculiar immune response triggered by this virus, which seems to last only few months, led to a search for alternatives such as passive immunization in addition to conventional vaccinations. Convalescent sera, monoclonal antibodies selected from the most potent neutralizing binders induced by the virus infection, recombinant human single-domain antibodies, and binders of variable scaffold and different origin have been tested alone or in combination exploiting monovalent, multivalent and multispecific formats. In this review, we analyse the state of the research in this field and present a summary of the ongoing projects finalized to identify suitable molecules for therapies based on passive immunization.